Effects of Iodized Feed on Stress Modulation in Steelhead Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)
In the aquaculture industry, the physiological systems of fish can be chronically stressed by various biological, chemical and physical factors. Chronic stress leads to a decrease in the overall health and growth of the fish, making them more prone to diseases. Dietary iodine has been shown to reduce this stress response in chickens and increase disease resistance in dairy cattle, but the mechanisms by which iodine affects stress resistance and immunocompetency is not completely understood and has not been extensively studied in fish. This study investigated the effects of iodized feed as a nutritional supplement in relation to stress modulation in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We investigated effects on primary, secondary and tertiary stress responses by measuring plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and thyroid hormones as well as haematocrit percentage and average growth rate in steelhead trout. Iodine-supplemented fish, on average, had lower levels of plasma cortisol and glucose and lower packed cell volumes than fish fed with regular commercial feed (P<0.05). Iodine-supplemented fish also showed higher levels of thyroid hormones and exhibited better growth over the period of the experiment (P<0.05). It was concluded that, used with other husbandry practices, use of iodine-supplemented feed could lead to better host defence, growth and survival in fish raised in the aquaculture industry.
iodized feed, fish, aquaculture, trout
Monica Gensic, Patrick J. Wissing, Timothy R. Keefe, and Ahmed Mustafa (2004).
Effects of Iodized Feed on Stress Modulation in Steelhead Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Research.35 (12), 1117-1121.