Media Effects on Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Shoot Growth In Vitro: Evaluation of Multiple Nutrient Formulations and Cytokinin Types

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In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant





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The growth of black walnut shoot cultures was compared on media differing in nutrient formulation (MS, DKW, WPM, and 1/2X DKW), cytokinin type (ZEA, BA, and TDZ), and cytokinin concentration. On WPM and 1/2X DKW media, hyperhydricity was observed at frequencies of 60-100% compared with frequencies of 10-40% on the high-salt media (DKW and MS). All three cytokinins facilitated shoot regeneration from nodal cuttings, but recurrent elongation was only observed for BA (5-12.5 μM) and ZEA (5-25 μM) with mean shoot heights of 70-80 mm being possible after two culture periods (6-8 wk) for the fastest elongating lines. ZEA was effective across all six shoot lines with mean shoot heights of at least 35 mm over two culture periods, but two of the shoot lines were 'nonresponsive' to BA with mean shoot heights of<15 mm. In contrast, when shoot tip explants were used for culture multiplication, ZEA was the least effective cytokinin with proliferation frequencies of only 30-40%. The proliferation frequencies were twice as great (75-87%) for TDZ (0.05-0.1 μM), but most of the shoots regenerated were swollen or fasciated in morphology. High rates of proliferation (61-88%) were also possible using BA (12.5-25 μM), but axillary shoots did not elongate well, growing to heights of only 5-10 mm, on average, after 4-5 wk. Since the cytokinin types and concentrations required for high-frequency (>50%) axillary proliferation had adverse effects on the morphology and growth potential of the shoots, multiplication strategies based on the use of nodal cuttings are recommended.


black walnut, juglans nigra, nutrients, cytokinin, biology, botany


Medical Sciences


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