Effect of Phosphatidylcholine and Beta-Carotene Supplementation on Growth and Immune Response of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in Cool Water
Journal of Applied Aquaculture
The effects of nutraceuticals in improving growth and immune response of Nile tilapia in cool water were investigated. Fish were reared in two different environments: warm water (28°C) and cool water (16°C). Fish reared in warm water (control) were provided with a basal commercial diet, while fish reared in cool water were provided with either the basal commercial diet (cool water control) or diets supplemented with nutraceuticals (either phosphatidylcholine or β-carotene). Experiments were conducted over an 8-week period. Fish held in warm water had significantly higher growth (p < 0.05), but condition factor, blood hematocrit, plasma glucose, and phagocytic capacity of macrophage cells were similar to fish held in cool water. Within the cool water groups (basal vs. supplemented diet), fish did not show any significant difference in condition factor, blood hematocrit, and phagocytic capacity of macrophage cells. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in glucose levels until the eighth week. Collectively these data indicate that a nutraceutical supplementation to the basal diet was not significantly beneficial. Despite slower growth, fish reared in cool water remained generally healthy. The observation that phagocytic capacity of macrophage cells was not significantly different suggests that disease resistance of tilapia grown in cool water may be comparable to those reared in warm water. Thus, our experiments suggest the feasibility of stocking or rearing tilapia in water temperatures as low as 16°C during cool weather, without need for supplementation to basal commercial feed.
Ahmed Mustafa, Laura Randolph, and Shree Dhawale (2011).
Effect of Phosphatidylcholine and Beta-Carotene Supplementation on Growth and Immune Response of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in Cool Water. Journal of Applied Aquaculture.23 (2), 136-146.