Planting the Espionage Tree: The French Military and the Professionalization of Intelligence at the end of the Nineteenth Century
Intelligence and National Security
Intelligence in France evolved as it professionalized at the end of the nineteenth century, led by determined individuals within the French army. However, in the centuries prior to the professionalization of espionage and counterespionage, military men rejected intelligence, viewing the practice with skepticism and disdain. This article asserts that there was a change in views towards espionage, particularly among the military, beginning in the middle of the nineteenth century. As the army went from eschewing intelligence to embracing it and taking the lead in its practice, the nature of intelligence work in France consequently reflected the goals and aims of the army, prioritizing military intelligence over others.
Deborah Bauer (2015).
Planting the Espionage Tree: The French Military and the Professionalization of Intelligence at the end of the Nineteenth Century. Intelligence and National Security.31 (5).