Title

Planting the Espionage Tree: The French Military and the Professionalization of Intelligence at the end of the Nineteenth Century

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

11-2015

Publication Source

Intelligence and National Security

Volume

31

Issue

5

DOI

10.1080/02684527.2015.1106120

Abstract

Intelligence in France evolved as it professionalized at the end of the nineteenth century, led by determined individuals within the French army. However, in the centuries prior to the professionalization of espionage and counterespionage, military men rejected intelligence, viewing the practice with skepticism and disdain. This article asserts that there was a change in views towards espionage, particularly among the military, beginning in the middle of the nineteenth century. As the army went from eschewing intelligence to embracing it and taking the lead in its practice, the nature of intelligence work in France consequently reflected the goals and aims of the army, prioritizing military intelligence over others.

Disciplines

History

This document is currently not available here.

  Contact Author

Share

COinS