How variations in social structure affect different types of intergroup bias and different dimensions of social identity in a multi-intergroup setting
Group Processes and Intergroup Relations
An experimental paradigm was used to examine how manipulations of group status (higher, equal, or lower) and group size (smaller, equal, or larger) affect positive allocation bias, negative allocation bias, and evaluative bias expressed by minority-ingroup members toward majority- and minority-outgroup members. As predicted, in most cases, group status was positively related to bias against a higher status majority outgroup, but negatively related to bias against a lower status minority outgroup. Group size was inversely related to expressions of bias in two of the three studies. Four dimensions of social identity (ingroup attraction, self-ingroup interdependency, intergroup differentiation, and perceptions of the intergroup context) were measured and found to be differentially affected by the manipulations. Status was positively related to most of the dimensions of social identity, but the predicted inverse relationship between group size and social identity received mixed support. Of the four dimensions, self-ingroup interdependency and unfavorable perceptions of the intergroup context were most consistently related to intergroup bias. The implications of these findings for theories of intergroup relations and future research efforts are discussed.
Jay W. Jackson (1999).
How variations in social structure affect different types of intergroup bias and different dimensions of social identity in a multi-intergroup setting. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations.2 (2), 145-173.