Reduction of orthophosphates loss in agricultural soil by nano calcium sulfate
Science of the Total Environment
Nutrient loss from soil, especially phosphorous (P) from farmlands to natural water bodies via surface runoff or infiltration, have caused significant eutrophication problems. This is because dissolved orthophosphates are usually the limiting nutrient for algal blooms. Currently, available techniques to control eutrophication are surprisingly scarce. Calcium sulfate or gypsum is a common soil amendment and has a strong complexation to orthophosphates. The results showed that calcium sulfate reduced the amount of water extractable P (WEP) through soil incubation tests, suggesting less P loss from farmlands. A greater decrease in WEP occurred with a greater dosage of calcium sulfate. Compared to conventional coarse calcium sulfate, nano calcium sulfate further reduced WEP by providing a much greater specific surface area, higher solubility, better contact with the fertilizer and the soil particles, and superior dispersibility. The enhancement of the nano calcium sulfate for WEP reduction is more apparent for a pellet- than a powdered- fertilizer. At the dosage of Ca/P weight ratio of 2.8, the WEP decreased by 31. ±. 5% with the nano calcium sulfate compared to 20. ±. 5% decrease with the coarse calcium sulfate when the pellet fertilizer was used. Computation of the chemical equilibrium speciation shows that calcium hydroxyapatite has the lowest solubility. However, other mineral phases such as hydroxydicalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octacalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate might form preceding to calcium hydroxyapatite. Since calcium sulfate is the major product of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, this study demonstrates a potential beneficial reuse and reduction of the solid FGD waste.
Chemical speciation, Driers (materials), Eutrophication, Farms, Fertilizers, Gypsum, Hydroxyapatite, Nutrients, Pelletizing, Phosphorus, Soils, Solubility, Sulfur compounds, Calcium hydroxyapatite, Calcium sulfate, Chemical equilibriums, Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, Flue gas desulfurization(FGD), Octacalcium phosphate, Orthophosphate, Tri-calcium phosphates
Dong Chen, P Szostak, Z Wei, and R Xiao (2016).
Reduction of orthophosphates loss in agricultural soil by nano calcium sulfate. Science of the Total Environment.539, 381-387. Elsevier.