Campus Contact

Scholarly Communications, IPFW Helmke Library,

Document Type


Publication Date



Opus: Research and Creativity at IPFW supports the university’s academic mission to raise its national and international profile through open access to the academic and creative accomplishments of IPFW faculty and students.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.