Myeong Hwan Kim
Department of Economics
Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne
The Yakuza are Japan's equivalent of America's mafia, both are large criminal organizations that are involved in numerous illegal dealings. However, unlike the mafia the yakuza have been able to transform themselves from a criminal group that deals strictly in illegal activities, to a group that has a hand in a number of commercial businesses.
Matt Frazier and Shahin Modarressi (2010).
Yakuza and Japan's Shadow Economy.